The life-sciences rankings are remarkably stable, with the top six for 2018 remaining unchanged from 2017’s rankings. Some jostling occurs in the lower half of the top 10, with the University of Cambridge entering the rank this year, rising seven slots from 16th place last year.
生命科學排名非常穩定，2018年排名前六的排名與2017年的排名保持不變。一些競爭發生在前10名的下半部分，今年劍橋大學進入排名，從去年的16位上升了7位。賓夕法尼亞大學（University of Pennsylvania）從2017年起保持第10。
1. Harvard University
Fractional count*: 595.67 (?8.4%)?, Article count?: 1,566
Harvard University owes two-thirds of its research output to contributions made in the life sciences, thanks in no small part to the Harvard Medical School, which employs almost 10,000 full-time faculty members and counts 15 Nobel prize winners among its staff and alumni.
High-profile researchers include stem-cell biologist, Steven Gygi, one of the leading authors in the biomedical sciences and jointly credited for the BioPlex network — the largest open-access resource for studying protein interactions — and Albert Hofman, a world leader in the epidemiology of common neurological and vascular diseases such as dementia, stroke and Alzheimer’s.
Immunology continues to be a big focus for the university as the potential of advanced cellular therapies such as CAR T-cell therapy is tested. While researchers pursue innovations such as diagnostic devicespowered by CRISPR–Cas, major collaborative efforts, such as with the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, will push the boundaries of disease detection and treatment.
2. National Institutes of Health
Fractional count: 335.25 (?6.9%), Article count: 785
分數計數: 335.25 (?6.9%), 文章數量: 785
With a budget of US$37 billion (2018), the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the largest single public funder of biomedical research in the world. It comprises 27 separate institutes and centres of various biomedical disciplines, and is led by physician-geneticist, Francis Collins, former head of the NIH’s Human Genome Project (HGP), the world’s largest collaborative biological project.
Since launching in 1990, the HGP has resulted in about US$1 trillion of economic growth — a 178-fold return on investment — at a cost of only US$2 per year for each US resident, according to an analysis cited by the NIH. Other significant NIH-supported research includes the discovery of fluoride to prevent tooth decay; the use of lithium to manage bipolar disorder; and the creation of vaccines against hepatitis, Haemophilus influenzae and human papillomavirus.
起始于1990年的人類基因組計劃推動了1萬億美元的經濟增長，是研究投入的178倍，該計劃投入平均到每一個美國公民身上才2美元。NIH的其他重要研究成果包括1,避免齲齒的氟化物的發現，2,采用鋰制劑（碳酸鋰）治療雙極精神病，3,肝炎疫苗和 4,流感嗜血桿菌疫苗和 5,HPV人乳頭瘤病毒疫苗.
3. Max Planck Society
Fractional count: 287.61 (0.5%), Article count: 984
With 27 institutes and 7 research facilities dedicated to biology and medicine, the Max Planck Society is a formidable player in the life sciences. For three years, it has held its ground as the third biggest producer of life-sciences research in the 82 journals tracked by the Nature Index.
Across the society’s institutes, researchers explore a diverse range of questions, from how insects evolved their sense of smell, to figuring out how to connect nerve cells to semiconductor chips. At the Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, researchers use computer simulations and experimental methods to tease apart how humans and other animals process information. 昆蟲如何進化它們的嗅覺，如何將神經細胞與半導體芯片鏈接起來。在普朗克生物網絡學研究所，研究人員采用計算機模擬和實驗方法來誘導人類和其他動物如何處理信息。
In 2018, Max Planck researchers were part of an international team that produced the first monkey clones (Cell). 2018年，普朗克研究所的研究人員是第一批培養出克隆猴子的國際研究團隊成員。
4. Stanford University
Fractional count: 285.59 (?0.3%), Article count: 697
Life sciences is a major contributor to Stanford University’s high-quality research output, as tracked by the Nature Index. It is home to pioneering work in DNA synthesis, stem-cell isolation, and the first successful human heart and lung transplant. 斯坦福大學以DNA合成，干細胞分離和世界第一例成功心臟和肺移植而著稱。
The Stanford School of Medicine, which has more than 2,000 full-time faculty members, dominates the university’s life-sciences output, and with US$381 million in NIH funding, claims the highest funding per researcher ratio in the United States.斯坦福大學醫學院號稱是平均每一位研究者擁有最多的研究經費。
In the Nature Index Biomedical Sciences 2019 supplement, Stanford bioengineer and neuroscientist, Karl Deisseroth was named one the field’s most prolific authors in high-quality journals. He is credited with the development of optogenetics, a method that uses light to genetically alter brain-cell activity. 斯坦福大學的光遺傳學家Karl Deisseroth教授采用光來改變大腦細胞活動。
Key life-sciences initiatives at Stanford include Bio-X, where doctors, scientists and engineers work collaboratively to unravel the complexity of the human body.斯坦福大學的Bio-X項目讓醫生，科學家和工程師緊密合作來厘清人體的復雜性。
5. Chinese Academy of Sciences
Fractional count: 246.57 (13.3%), Article count: 762
In the past four years, the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) has been the only Chinese institution in the Nature Index’s top 10 for life sciences. Peking University, the second highest placed Chinese institute in this category, is ranked 40th for life sciences in the 2019 Annual Tables.中國科學院是中國唯一排名世界前十的生命科學研究所，而在中國排名第二的北京大學在2019年的表格中，世界排名第40位。
As in the other categories, many of CAS’s 105 institutes are focused on life-sciences research, the top player of which is the Shanghai Institutes of Biological Sciences (SIBS). 上海生物研究所是中國科學院生命科學研究所里的王牌。The formation of SIBS in 1999 brought together eight Shanghai-based CAS life-sciences institutes, including the Shanghai Institute of Neuroscience, which published key papers in 2018 on the neural mechanisms that underlie itchiness (The Journal of Neuroscience) and more targeted gene-editing using CRISPR–Cas9 (Nature Neuroscience).上海生物研究所2018年在神經科學雜志上發表了瘙癢癥的神經機制，以及在自然神經科學上發表的基因編輯技術CRISPR–Cas9的論文。
“CAS has many research teams in the different areas of the life sciences, so it’s easier to perform cross-academy collaboration in life-science research,” says Qiu Zilong, senior investigator at the CAS Shanghai Institute of Neuroscience.
6. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Fractional count: 202.54 (?2.6%), Article count: 789
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) has an annual budget of more than US$3.5 billion (2018), a strong entrepreneurial culture, and an emphasis on interdisciplinary collaboration. It’s where the first chemical synthesis of penicillin was achieved in 1957, and, more recently, where researchers devised a miniaturized system that can deliver tiny quantities to specific regions of the brain just 1 cubic millimetre in size.MIT在1957年第一個成功化學合成青霉素，以及最近發明了微型系統，輸送微小計量到大腦大約一立方毫米的特別部位。
Now the new Stephen A. Schwarzman College of Computing and the Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research are teaming up to bring together life scientists, engineers and AI experts with the shared goal of finding more effective approaches to cancer diagnosis and treatment.
新成立的MIT Stephen A. Schwarzman計算機學院和Koch整合癌癥研究所正一起組合生命科學家，工程師和AI人工智能專家，為探索癌癥診斷和治療的更有效的方法。
“MIT fosters collaboration with an emphasis on solving the problem and bringing together disciplines to make this happen,” says vice-president for research, Maria Zuber.
MIT appears in several top 10 lists in Nature Index’s 2019 Annual Tables, including physics and chemistry, and is ranked third overall among global academic institutions.
7. University of California, San Francisco
Fractional count: 195.19 (10.9%), Article count: 530
Consistently ranking in the top 10 for life sciences in the Nature Index, the University of California, San Francisco, (UCSF) has made its mark in the advancement of new cellular therapies and gene-editing techniques.加州大學舊金山分校在細胞治療和基因編輯技術方面處于領先地位。
Since 2018, UCSF researchers have devised a safer and cheaper way to genetically engineer immune cells (Nature); modified CRISPR to treat genetic diseases without making permanent changes to the genome (Science); and waded into a decades-long debate with the finding that adult human brains do not produce new neurons (Nature). 自從2018年，加州大學舊金山分校的研究者發明了更安全和更廉價的方法來研究遺傳性免疫細胞（發布在《自然》雜志），采用CRISPR技術來治療遺傳疾病而不會對基因組產生永久改變（發表在《科學》雜志上），以及發現成人大腦不會產生新的神經元，而這學界一直都有的爭論最終得到解決（發表在《自然》雜志上）。
Key programmes under way are the ImmunoX Initiative, which is exploring entirely new areas of immunology, and the Center for Digital Health Innovation, which is partnered with high-profile enterprises such as the US$600-million Chan Zuckerberg Biohub. These projects exemplify UCSF’s passion for collaboration, says executive vice-chancellor and provost, Daniel Lowenstein. 加州大學舊金山分校的ImmunoX倡議，是探索免疫學的全新領域，該校也是數字健康創新中心，并與Facebook臉書老板扎克伯格發起資助6億美金的Chan Zuckerberg Biohub合作。
“The truly rare ingredient in UCSF’s ‘special sauce’ is generosity — a genuine wish by senior and junior investigators alike to see everyone succeed. Our research community’s greatest pleasure is in celebrating our collective achievements.”
8. Yale University
Fractional count: 185.93 (0.3%), Article count: 420
Founded in 1701, Yale University is the third-oldest higher-education institution in the United States. With the Yale School of Medicine opening in the early nineteenth century, the university’s strength in the life sciences runs deep, accounting for roughly half of its output in the Nature Index.
Yale’s research in the life sciences is set to make even bigger leaps, with the launch of the Center for Biomedical Data Science early in 2018. In addition to organizing and storing vast amounts of data, the centre brings together biomedical researchers and data scientists to help improve health-care systems, treatments methods and diagnosis. 耶魯在2018年推出生物醫藥數據科學中心，講生物醫藥研究人員和數據科學家聯系起來，旨在改善健康保健系統，治療方法和診斷。
In 2018, Yale researchers reported the results of the most comprehensive genomic analysis of the human brain ever undertaken, revealing the changes it undergoes through development, how it varies among individuals, and the roots of neuropsychiatric conditions such as autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia. 2018年，耶魯大研究人員報告了人類大腦正在進行的最全面的基因組分析，透露了在不同個體的自閉癥和精神分裂癥的神經精神狀況根源。
9. The University of Cambridge
Fractional count: 182.89 (12.5%), Article count: 562
Although the University of Cambridge dropped out of the Nature Index physics top 10 this year, it entered the life-sciences top 10 at rank 9 — a big leap from its 2018 spot at 16th for life sciences.
High-profile researchers in the life sciences at Cambridge include Nobel prize-winning biologist, Martin Evans, who with his colleague, Matthew Kaufman, was the first to culture and cultivate mice embryonic stem cells in 1981. Developmental biologist, John Gurdon, was the joint recipient of the 2012 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for the discovery that mature cells can be converted to stem cells. 劍橋大學的諾貝爾獎獲得者生物學家Martin Evans和他的同事Matthew Kaufman在1981年首先培育出老鼠胚胎干細胞。2012年諾貝爾生理學或醫學獎聯合獲得者發育生理學家John Gurdon發現成熟細胞也可以被轉化為干細胞。
Rising stars include Rogier Kievit, who studies neurodevelopmental changes in cognitive abilities such as reasoning, problem-solving and goal management, and Hannah Critchlow, who has been named as a Top 100 UK scientist by the Science Council for her work in science communication and as one of the university’s most “inspirational and successful” women. 冉冉升起的科學家明星Rogier Kievit，研究認知能力的神經發育變化，比如推理，解決問題和目標管理等等。還有科學家Hannah Critchlow，因為她在科學溝通方面的工作，被英國皇家科學院命名為Top100英國科學家以及劍橋大學最富有靈感和成功的女性科學家之一。
10. University of Pennsylvania
Fractional count: 177.14 (0%), Article count: 457
The University of Pennsylvania (UPenn) is home to the Perelman School of Medicine, the oldest medical school in the United States. Life sciences accounts for around 60% of the university’s papers in journals tracked by the Nature Index. 賓夕法尼亞大學Perelman醫學院,是美國最古老的醫學院。該校生命科學論文占到由自然指數所能跟蹤到的論文的60%。
The Center for Global Health at UPenn aims to tackle inequities in health care in 65 countries, including Sudan, Argentina and Vietnam. The centre’s Botswana–UPenn Partnership, which has been operating for two decades, is working to improve health care in the region and is conducting research on HIV/AIDS. 賓夕法尼亞大學的全球健康中心在HIV/AIDS的健康護理方面功勛卓著。
Last year, UPenn was involved in the development of a blood test that identified pregnant women at risk of delivering prematurely. The paper, published in Science, was among the institution’s most-talked about articles in 2018. 2018年UPenn發明了一種血液測試法，可以分辨出孕婦早產的風險（該論文發表在《科學》雜志上）。